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Speech Language Pathologists

General Information

Speech pathologists work with a full range of human communication and related disorders(38). They may work alone or as part of a multidisciplinary team to help individuals effectively communicate and to eat and swallow effectively(39). The role of a speech language pathologist is to identify, assess, evaluate, manage, treat, educate and help with the prevention of speech, language, fluency, voice, cognitive, and other related communication disorders(39).

Speech pathologists work with a wide variety of clients whose needs may arise from developmental delays, hearing loss or learning disabilities(39). Referrals can be made from a wide variety of sources, including doctors, health care professionals, public health nurses, teachers, family members or infant development specialists(39).

In addition to e valuating and diagnosing speech, language and swallowing disorders, speech language pathologists may also train future professionals, engage in research about human communication, manage agencies and clinics, develop new techniques and equipment and investigate associated behavioural patterns(38). There are a variety of settings in which a speech language pathologist may be employed including schools, rehabilitation centers, hospitals, community clinics, universities, health departments, government agencies, centers for persons with disabilities and research laboratories.

The clinical methods used to help clients vary depending upon the severity and nature of the problem(38). Interventions based upon high quality, empirical evidence are selected to help individuals with speech and language difficulties(38). For example, individuals with articulation disorders are taught to improve speech production and pronunciation, those with stuttering problems are taught to speak fluently, those with severe complications may be taught to use augmentative communication systems and those with comprehension difficulties are taught skills to help them better understand both oral and written language(38).

Related Sites

American Speech-Language-Hearing Association
Canadian Association of Speech Language Pathologists
L'Association québécoise des orthophonistes et des audiologists
National Center for Voice and Speech
National Student Speech Language Hearing Association
Ontario Association of Speech Language Pathologists and Audiologists


1) American Journal of Speech Language Pathology
2) ASHA Leader
4) American Speech
5) Applied Psycholinguistics
6) Brain and Language
7) Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics
8) Communication Disorders Quarterly
9) Communication Education
10) Communication Monographs
11) Journal of Applied Communication Research
12) Journal of Child Language
13) Journal of Communication Disorders
14) Journal of Fluency Disorders
15) Journal of Memory & Language
16) Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
17) Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders
18) Journal of Speech Language & Hearing Research
19) Journal of Voice
20) Language and Speech
21) Language Learning
22) Language Speech & Hearing Services in the Schools
23) Language Testing
24) Quarterly Journal of Speech
25) Seminars in Speech and Language
26) Topics in Language Disorders

Occupational Therapy

General Information

Occupational therapy is a treatment approach that helps individuals to gain and maintain independence in all facets of their lives(40). Occupational therapists assist individuals of any age develop the life skills necessary to lead satisfying and independent lives(40). They work to prevent disability, promote health or develop and maintain abilities(41). It is believed that if an individual is unable to do things that they want to do, their general well-being will be negatively affected (41).

In the field, occupation refers to the tasks and activities of daily life that are of value and are meaningful to a person(41). These can include self-care (i.e. mobility, personal care), leisure (i.e. sports, social activities) and productivity (school, play, homemaking, employment). Occupational therapists specialize in the analysis, adaptation and therapeutic use of occupations, to achieve goals that are jointly determined by the therapist and client, in their home and community context (41).

Occupational therapists assist clients in a wide variety of ways including teaching new ways of doing things, adapting material or equipment and making changes to the environment(41). They often make comprehensive home, school and job site evaluations in order to make adaptive modifications, assess and treat performance skills and guide friends and family members(40). Clients may necessitate the services of an occupational therapist for several reasons including developmental disability or delay, learning problems, birth injuries, vision and cognitive problems(40).

Related Sites

American Occupational Therapy Association
American Occupational Therapy Foundation
Canadian Association of Occupational Therapists
Canadian Occupational Therapy Foundation
College of Occupational Therapists of Ontario
Ordre des Ergotherapeutes du Quebec (OEQ)
World Federation of Occupational Therapists


1) Australian Occupational Therapy Journal
2) American Journal of Occupational Therapy
3) Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
4) British Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation
5) British Journal of Occupational Therapy
6) Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy
7) International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation
8) Journal of Occupational Science
9) New England Journal of Medicine
10) Occupation, Participation and Health
11) Occupational Therapy International
12) OT Practice
13) Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics


General Information

Physical therapists are professionals that diagnose and treat people with medical problems or other conditions that limit their ability to move and perform functional daily activities(42). They also help to prevent conditions associated with mobility loss through wellness and fitness programs that help the individual achieve active and healthy lifestyles(42). Treatment plans and techniques are developed that promote the ability to move, restore function, reduce pain and prevent disability(42).

In order to achieve health goals, physiotherapists use high quality assessment and diagnostic tools and procedures to plan therapeutic and preventive courses of intervention(43). Physiotherapists can work in a variety of settings including private and public offices, educational facilities, research laboratories and consultation facilities(43).

Related Sites

American Physical Therapy Association
Canadian Alliance of Physiotherapy
Canadian Physiotherapy Association
College of Physiotherapists of Ontario
Ontario Physiotherapy Association


1) Advances in Physiotherapy
2) American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
3) Australian Journal of Physiotherapy
4) British Journal of Therapy and Rehabiltation
5) Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology
6) Clinical Rehabilitation
7) Critical Reviews in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
8) Disability and Rehabilitation
9) New Zealand Journal of Physiotherapy
10) Physical Therapy
11) Journal of Developmental and Behavioural Pediatrics
12) Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
13) Journal of Physical Therapy Science
14) Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
15) Movement Disorders
16) Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
17) Physiotherapy Research International


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